分享篇New York Times 《纽约时报》的访谈：记者Claudia采访了Irresistible: The Rise of Addictive Technology and the Business of Keeping Us Hooked 《无法抗拒：崛起中的上瘾科技与商业》一书的作者Alter博士。Alter是social psychologist 社会心理学家，任纽约大学商学院副教授。PS：本文有一定长度、难度略高于最近3篇此类阅读分析文章。
Why We Can't Look Away From Our Screens
By Claudia Dreifus
Q 提问: What makes you think that people have become addicted to 上瘾 digital devices 电子设备 and social media 社交媒体?
A回答: In the past, we thought of addiction as mostly related to chemical substances 化学物质: heroin, cocaine, nicotine. Today, we have this phenomenon 现象 of behavioral addictions 成瘾行为 where, one tech industry leader 业界领袖 told me, people are spending nearly three hours a day to their cellphones. Where teenage boys sometimes spend weeks alone in their rooms playing video games. Where Snapchat 一款阅后即焚的图片社交软件 will boast 夸耀 that its youthful users open their app more than 18 times a day.
- 常用缩写：Q & A = questions and answers 问答环节
- 对比写作手法：in the past 过去（如何）+ today 现在（情况如何），简单好用
- 记忆数据，为今后写作、口语演讲积累素材：people are spending nearly three hours a day to their cellphones人们每天花3小时看手机（本文来自17年3月，是相对较新的数据）
How do you define "addiction"? 如何定义上瘾
The definition I go with is that it has to be something you enjoy doing in the short term 短期, that undermines 损害 your well-being 健康幸福 in the long term 长期 - but that you do compulsively anyway. We're biologically prone to 容易受（影响）getting hooked on these sorts of experiences. If you put someone in front of a slot machine 老虎机, their brain will look qualitatively the same as when they take heroin. If you're someone whocompulsively 强迫 plays video games, the minute you load up your computer, your brain will look like that of a substance abuser.
We are engineered in such a way that as long as 只要 an experience hits the right buttons, our brains will release the neurotransmitter 释放神经递质 dopamine 多巴胺. We'll get a flood of dopamine that makes us feel wonderful in the short term, though in the long term you build a tolerance 耐受力 and want more.
- 讨论问题前先下定义，是良好的沟通习惯：本段一开始就是the defenition I go with 讲了作者本文对“上瘾”的定义，好定义是充分讨论的基础，否则鸡同鸭讲，比如学霸和普通学生讨论如何考出好成绩？学霸想的是100分拿90分，普通学生想的是100分拿80分，讨论前大家先定义好80或90分的目标，再展开讨论，会更高效。对思辨感兴趣的小伙伴继续读：确认过眼神，爱上英语辩论！
- 常见单词的冷门/专业术语意思：这里tolerence 不是常见的“忍受”释义，而是“耐受力”，比如平时一天玩1小时游戏就觉得过瘾、可以停止了，一段时间后会需要玩更多时间，2小时甚至3小时一天，才能得到和以前玩1小时一样的快感。
Do the designers of the new technologies understand what they're doing? 新技术的设计者是否知道自己在做什么？
The people who create 创造、设计 video games 电子游戏 wouldn't say they are looking to create addicts. They just want you to spend as much time as possible 花尽可能多的时间 with their products 产品. Some of the games on smartphones require 要求 you to give money as you play, so they want to keep you playing. The designers will build into a game a certain amount of feedback 反馈, in the same way that slot machines offer anoccasional 偶尔 win to hold your interest 持续吸引你.
Not surprisingly, game producers 游戏制作人 will often pretest 预测 different versions 版本 of a release to see which one is hardest to resist 抗拒 and which will keep your attention 保留你的注意力 longest. It works （这种做法）很奏效.
- 通过打比方让人迅速了解概念：in the same way that “以类似的方式”，该表达衔接上下文，用了打比方的写作手法，说游戏通过提供反馈，类似老虎机偶尔让玩家赢一把，以便持续吸引玩家（上瘾）。
Why do you claim that many of the new electronic gadgets have fueled behavioral addictions? 为何认为新电子设备激发了上瘾行为？
These new gadgets turn out to be 最终成了 the perfect delivery devices for addictive media. If games and social media were once confined to 限定在 our home computers,portable devices 可移动设备 permit 允许 us to engage with them 交互（使用） everywhere.
Today, were checking our social media constantly 持续, which disrupts work and everyday life 扰乱工作和日常生活. We've become obsessed with 着迷 how many likes our Instagram photos are getting instead of 取代、而不是 where we are walking and whom we are talking to.
Where's the harm in this? （手机上瘾）有哪些危害？
If you're on the phone for three hours daily, that's time you're not spending on face-to-face interactions 面对面交流 with people. Smartphones give everything you need to enjoy the moment you're in, but they don‘t require much initiative 主动性. You never have to remember anything because everything is right in front of you. You don't have to develop the ability 培养能力 to memorize 记忆 or to come up with new ideas 有新想法.
I find it interesting that the late 已去世的 Steve Jobs said in a 2010 interview that his own children didn't use iPads. In fact 事实上, there are a surprising number of Silicon Valley 硅谷 titans 巨头 who refuse 拒绝 to let their kids near certain devices. There’s a private school 私立学校 in the Bay Area and it doesn't allow any tech - no iPhones or iPads. The really interesting thing about this school is that 75 percent of the parents are tech executives.
Learning about 了解到 the school pushed me to 促使某人做某事 write Irresistible. What was it about these products that made them, in the eyes of 在……看来 experts, sopotentially 潜在的dangerous 危险?
Are you addicted to this stuff? 你对电子设备上瘾吗？
Yeah, I think so. I've developed addictions from time to time 时不时 to various 各类 games on my phone. I'm addicted to email. I can't stop checking 无法停止做某事 it. I can't go to bed at night if I haven't cleared my inbox 清空收件箱. I'll keep my phone next to my bed, much as I try not to.
The technology is designed to hook 吸引 us that way. Email is bottomless 无底洞. Social media platforms are endless 无休无止. Twitter? The feed never really ends. You could sit there 24 hours a day and you'll never get to the end. And so you come back for more and more.
- 联想经典用法：The feed never really ends. 信息流永远刷不完，这句话类似The city never sleeps. 城市永不眠，常用来形容各类繁华的国际城市、一线城市。相关阅读：每周问答06: 英专在一线城市读研性价比高吗？
- 联系上下文，读懂内在逻辑：最后一句come back for more and more 讲述人们看社交媒体越来越频繁、花的时间越来越多，有没有联想到上文的"tolerence 耐受力"加强后，会需要更多刺激才能维持同等水平的快乐？想到这层，才算读明白文章、理解tolerence这一概念了。
- 总结同义表达：hook 吸引，意思相近的表达全文还出现了 be addicted to ≈ be obsessed with 上瘾、沉迷
If you were advising a friend on quitting their behavioral addictions, what would you suggest? 关于戒掉上瘾行为有什么建议？
I'd suggest that they be more mindful 警觉 about how they are allowing tech to invade 侵占 their life. Next, they should cordon it off. I like the idea, for instance 比如, of not answering email after six at night.
In general, I'd say find more time to be in natural environments, to sit face to face with someone in a long conversation 谈话 without any technology in the room. There should be times of the day where it looks like the 1950s or where you are sitting in a room and you can't tell what era 时代 you are in. You shouldn't always be looking at screens 看屏幕.